At MedGenome, we are deeply focused on continuous innovation, and publishing our findings for the larger benefit of the genetic testing community. Read through our publications for details of our latest work.
Date: January 6, 2020
Snakebite envenoming is a serious and neglected tropical disease that kills ~100,000 people annually. High-quality, genome-enabled comprehensive characterization of toxin genes will facilitate development of effective humanized recombinant antivenom. We report a de novo near-chromosomal genome assembly of Naja naja, the Indian cobra, a highly venomous, medically important snake. Our assembly has a scaffold N50 of 223.35 Mb, with 19 scaffolds containing 95% of the genome. Of the 23,248 predicted protein-coding genes, 12,346 venom-gland-expressed genes constitute the ‘venom-ome’ and this included 139 genes from 33 toxin families. Among the 139 toxin genes were 19 ‘venom-ome-specific toxins’ (VSTs) that showed venom-gland-specific expression, and these probably encode the minimal core venom effector proteins. Synthetic venom reconstituted through recombinant VST expression will aid in the rapid development of safe and effective synthetic antivenom. Additionally, our genome could serve as a reference for snake genomes, support evolutionary studies and enable venom-driven drug discovery.
Date: December 27, 2019
PIK3CA mutations are frequent in human breast cancer. Pik3caH1047R mutant expression in mouse mammary gland promotes tumorigenesis. TP53 mutations co-occur with PIK3CA mutations in human breast cancers. We previously generated a conditionally activatable Pik3caH1047R;MMTV-Cre mouse model and found a few malignant sarcomatoid (spindle cell) carcinomas that had acquired spontaneous dominant-negative Trp53 mutations.
A Pik3caH1047R;Trp53R270H;MMTV-Cre double mutant mouse breast cancer model was generated. Tumors were characterized by histology, marker analysis, transcriptional profiling, single-cell RNA-seq, and bioinformatics. Cell lines were developed from mutant tumors and used to identify and confirm genes involved in metastasis.
We found Pik3caH1047R and Trp53R270H cooperate in driving oncogenesis in mammary glands leading to a shorter latency than either alone. Double mutant mice develop multiple histologically distinct mammary tumors, including adenocarcinoma and sarcomatoid (spindle cell) carcinoma. We found some tumors to be invasive and a few metastasized to the lung and/or the lymph node. Single-cell RNA-seq analysis of the tumors identified epithelial, stromal, myeloid, and T cell groups. Expression analysis of the metastatic tumors identified S100a4 as a top candidate gene associated with metastasis. Metastatic tumors contained a much higher percentage of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-signature positive and S100a4-expressing cells. CRISPR/CAS9-mediated knockout of S100a4 in a metastatic tumor-derived cell line disrupted its metastatic potential indicating a role for S100a4 in metastasis.
Pik3caH1047R;Trp53R270H;MMTV-Cre mouse provides a preclinical model to mimic a subtype of human breast cancers that carry both PIK3CA and TP53 mutations. It also allows for understanding the cooperation between the two mutant genes in tumorigenesis. Our model also provides a system to study metastasis and develop therapeutic strategies for PIK3CA/TP53 double-positive cancers. S100a4 found involved in metastasis in this model can be a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target.”””
Date: December 27, 2019
Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH), an autosomal co-dominant disorder characterized by very high LDL cholesterol, is strongly associated with premature coronary artery disease. Molecular landscape of FH in Asian Indians is not well studied, although this ethnic group comprises a large proportion of the world population. Knowledge of mutations in these groups is useful for identifying persons affected with FH, saving their lives and cascade screening in their relatives.
Date: December 11, 2019
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted therapies have shown limited efficacy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients despite its overexpression. Identifying molecular mechanisms associated with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs such as erlotinib remains an unmet need and a therapeutic challenge. In this study, we employed an integrated multi-omics approach to delineate mechanisms associated with acquired resistance to erlotinib by carrying out whole exome sequencing, quantitative proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling. We observed amplification of several genes including AXL kinase and transcription factor YAP1 resulting in protein overexpression. We also observed expression of constitutively active mutant MAP2K1 (p.K57E) in erlotinib resistant SCC-R cells. An integrated analysis of genomic, proteomic and phosphoproteomic data revealed alterations in MAPK pathway and its downstream targets in SCC-R cells. We demonstrate that erlotinib-resistant cells are sensitive to MAPK pathway inhibition. This study revealed multiple genetic, proteomic and phosphoproteomic alterations associated with erlotinib resistant SCC-R cells. Our data indicates that therapeutic targeting of MAPK pathway is an effective strategy for treating erlotinib-resistant HNSCC tumors.
Date: December 9, 2019
Studies evaluating next‐generation sequencing (NGS) for retinal disorders may not reflect clinical practice. We report results of retrospective analysis of patients referred for clinical testing at two institutions (US and India).
This retrospective study of 131 patients who underwent clinically validated targeted NGS or exome sequencing for a wide variety of clinical phenotypes categorized results into a definitive, indeterminate, or negative molecular diagnosis.
A definitive molecular diagnosis (52%) was more common in the India cohort (62% vs. 39%, p = .009), while an indeterminate molecular diagnosis occurred only in the US cohort (12%). In the US cohort, a lower diagnostic rate in Hispanic, non‐Caucasians (23%) was seen compared to Caucasians (57%). The India cohort had a high rate of homozygous variants (61%) and different frequency of genes involved compared to the US cohort.
Despite inherent limitations in clinical testing, the diagnostic rate across the two cohorts (52%) was similar to the 50%–65% diagnostic rate in the literature. However, the diagnostic rate was lower in the US cohort and appears partly explained by racial background. The high rate of consanguinity in the Indian population is reflected in the high rate of homozygosity for pathogenic mutations and may have implications for population level screening and genetic counseling. Clinical laboratories may note diagnostic rates that differ from the literature, due to factors such as heterogeneity in racial background or consanguinity rates in the populations being tested. This information may be useful for post‐test counseling.”””
Date: December 9, 2019
Women with persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections have a high risk of developing cervical cancer (CaCx). HPV-16 alone accounts for more than 60% of CaCx worldwide. Most of the HPV infections are transient and only a subset of women develop persistent HPV-16 infection. Many studies have shown associations of different human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles with HPV-mediated CaCx, but there are only a few studies globally that relate to persistent HPV-16 infection. Furthermore, such studies from India are sparse. Hence, we investigated the association of HLA-A, B, DRB, and DQB alleles with persistent HPV-16 infection and HPV-16-positive CaCx in south India (Tamil Nadu). HPV-16 persistent infection was observed in 7% of normal women. A total of 50 women with HPV-16-positive CaCx, 21 women with HPV-16 persistent infection, and 74 HPV-16-negative normal women were recruited for this study. Low-resolution typing of HLA-A, B, DRB, and DQB alleles was performed. HLA-B*44 and DRB1*07 showed a significant association with persistent HPV-16 infection (odds ratio, p-value = 26.3, 0.03 and 4.7, 0.01, respectively). HLA-B*27 and DRB1*12 were significantly associated with both HPV-16+ CaCx and persistent HPV-16 infection (23.8, 0.03; 52.9, 0.01; 9.8, 0.0009; and 13.8, 0.009; respectively). HLA-B*15 showed a negative association with HPV-16-positive CaCx (0.1, 0.01), whereas DRB1*04 exhibited protection to both HPV-16-positive CaCx and persistent HPV-16 infection (0.3, 0.0001 and 0.1, 0.0002, respectively). Thus, we show HLA allelic association with HPV-16 infection in Tamil Nadu. Larger studies on high-resolution HLA typing coupled with HPV-16 genome diversity will offer further insights into host/pathogen genome coevolution.
Date: December 5, 2019
Recent work has demonstrated that two archaic human groups (Neanderthals and Denisovans) interbred with modern humans and contributed to the contemporary human gene pool. These findings relied on the availability of high-coverage genomes from both Neanderthals and Denisovans. Here we search for evidence of archaic admixture from a worldwide panel of 1,667 individuals using an approach that does not require the presence of an archaic human reference genome. We find no evidence for archaic admixture in the Andaman Islands, as previously claimed, or on the island of Flores, where Homo floresiensis fossils have been found. However, we do find evidence for at least one archaic admixture event in sub-Saharan Africa, with the strongest signal in Khoesan and Pygmy individuals from Southern and Central Africa. The locations of these putative archaic admixture tracts are weighted against functional regions of the genome, consistent with the long-term effects of purifying selection against introgressed genetic material.
Date: December 4, 2019
The underrepresentation of non-Europeans in human genetic studies so far has limited the diversity of individuals in genomic datasets and led to reduced medical relevance for a large proportion of the world’s population. Population-specific reference genome datasets as well as genome-wide association studies in diverse populations are needed to address this issue. Here we describe the pilot phase of the GenomeAsia 100K Project. This includes a whole-genome sequencing reference dataset from 1,739 individuals of 219 population groups and 64 countries across Asia. We catalogue genetic variation, population structure, disease associations and founder effects. We also explore the use of this dataset in imputation, to facilitate genetic studies in populations across Asia and worldwide.
Date: October 22, 2019
Limited repertoires of targets are available in the management of squamous cell carcinoma lung. In this study, we analyzed epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), RAS, BRAF mutations in lung cancer patients of squamous cell histology using next-generation sequencing (NGS) on the circulating cell-free DNA (cf-DNA). Materials and Methods: In this prospective observational study, patients with squamous cell carcinoma lung, either newly diagnosed or having a progressive disease on prior therapy were eligible. Cf-DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and analyzed for EGFR, KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations using NGS. Results: Sixteen patients were enrolled over a period of 1 month. The mean cf-DNA quantity extracted from the plasma was 96.5 ng (range, 15–200 ng). Eight clinically relevant mutations in the EGFR pathway were identified. These include Exon 21 mutations in 4 patients, Exon 20 mutation in onepatient, complex mutations with coexisting Exon 21 and Exon18 in one patient and KRAS Exon 2 mutations in two patients. Conclusion: cf-DNA is a minimally invasive technique for detection of clinically relevant mutations in lung cancer patients. The use of novel advanced techniques such as NGS may help in detecting EGFR pathway mutations in patients with squamous cell carcinoma lung.
Date: October 11, 2019
This study investigated the potential of vitamin K1 as a novel lens aldose reductase inhibitor in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic cataract model. A single, intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (35 mg/kg) resulted in hyperglycemia, activation of lens aldose reductase 2 (ALR2) and accumulation of sorbitol in eye lens which could have contributed to diabetic cataract formation. However, when diabetic rats were treated with vitamin K1 (5 mg/kg, sc, twice a week) it resulted in lowering of blood glucose and inhibition of lens aldose reductase activity because of which there was a corresponding decrease in lens sorbitol accumulation. These results suggest that vitamin K1 is a potent inhibitor of lens aldose reductase enzyme and we made an attempt to understand the nature of this inhibition using crude lens homogenate as well as recombinant human aldose reductase enzyme. Our results from protein docking and spectrofluorimetric analyses clearly show that vitamin K1 is a potent inhibitor of ALR2 and this inhibition is primarily mediated by the blockage of DL-glyceraldehyde binding to ALR2. At the same time docking also suggests that vitamin K1 overlaps at the NADPH binding site of ALR2, which probably shows that vitamin K1 could possibly bind both these sites in the enzyme. Another deduction that we can derive from the experiments performed with pure protein is that ALR2 has three levels of affinity, first for NADPH, second for vitamin K1 and third for the substrate DL-glyceraldehyde. This was evident based on the dose-dependency experiments performed with both NADPH and DL-glyceraldehyde. Overall, our study shows the potential of vitamin K1 as an ALR2 inhibitor which primarily blocks enzyme activity by inhibiting substrate interaction of the enzyme. Further structural studies are needed to fully comprehend the exact nature of binding and inhibition of ALR2 by vitamin K1 that could open up possibilities of its therapeutic application.