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At MedGenome, we are deeply focused on continuous innovation, and publishing our findings for the larger benefit of the genetic testing community. Read through our publications for details of our latest work.

Date: April 14, 2020

KMT2B-related dystonia is characterized by childhood-onset and progressive disease course with prominent lower-limb, cervical, cranial, and laryngeal involvement [ 1 ]. Developmental delay and intellectual disability are commonly reported [ 1 , 2 ]. Here we are reporting an Indian patient with KMT2B-related dystonia who had a disease onset at the age of 19 years. Other interesting features in our patient were normal cognition, dystonic opisthotonus, and absence of oromandibular and laryngeal dystonia.

Date: March 1, 2020

We report a family with a spectrum of short stature, craniofacial dysmorphism, and digital anomalies in a father and 2 daughters, with the youngest (proband) displaying a severe phenotype. Clinically, autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) was diagnosed. Whole-exome sequencing identified a heterozygous pathogenic BMP2 variant in the father and his daughters. The phenotype of short stature, facial dysmorphism, and skeletal anomalies with or without cardiac anomalies related to BMP2 haploinsufficiency has some facial and digital resemblance to ADRS. Although this variant segregated in the affected members, it failed to explain the severe phenotype of the proband. A reanalysis of the girl’s raw data confirmed 2 disorders: a de novo likely pathogenic DVL1 variant implicated in ADRS and the familial BMP2 variant. A close interplay of high-throughput sequencing and deep phenotyping unraveled the complexities of the blended phenotype in the proband.

Date: June 1, 2019

Cervical cancer is a growing and serious problem world-wide in women, but more acute in developing countries especially in Indian subcontinent. The main causative agent for the disease is Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). The history of the cervical cancer goes back to eighteenth century as the HPV infection is reported since 1800s. Presently, the genetic structure of HPV is well defined. Several screening tests including cytology and visual based screening and high risk HPV testing are available. Also available are various clinical and commercial diagnostic tests. However due to the lack of awareness and population-based screening programs, the morbidity and mortality rate is alarmingly high. There are new emerging biomarkers including E6/E7 mRNA, p16ink4a, markers of aberrant S-phase induction, chromosomal abnormalities and miRNAs along with advanced genotyping methods. These markers have clinical significance and are helpful in disease prevention and management. Further, recent advancement in the field of metagenomics has increased the prospects of identifying newer microbes, viruses hitherto reported thus far in the context of HPV infection. Analysis of HPV cases using modern tools including genotyping using more powerful biomarkers is envisaged to enhance the prospects of early diagnosis, better prognosis, more reliable treatment and eventual management of the disease.

Date: January 9, 2020

“Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), an autosomal codominant disorder characterized by very high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, is strongly associated with premature coronary artery disease.
Molecular landscape of FH in Asian Indians is not well studied, although this ethnic group comprises a large proportion of the world population. Knowledge of mutations in these groups is useful for identifying persons affected with FH, saving their lives, and cascade screening in their relatives.”

Date: February 1, 2020

Epstein Barr Viral infection is a common childhood infection in India and is also nearly 100 % etiologically associated with pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL). The main question in EBV immunobiology has been, why only a small subset of infected individuals develop EBV associated malignancies, while the vast majority carry this virus asymptomatically for life. Natural Killer (NK) cells, with a phenotype of CD56dim CD16+ exhibit potent cytotoxicity towards both virus infected cells and transformed cells and hence have been considered to be crucial in preventing the development of symptomatic EBV infection and lymphoma. In order to get an insight into the various possible molecular aspects of NK cells, in the pathogenesis of both these EBV mediated diseases in children we studied the whole transcriptome of MACS sorted CD56dim CD16 + NK cells from four patients from each of the three groups of children viz. Infectious Mononucleosis (IM), HL and age matched controls by using a massively parallel sequencing approach. NK cells from both IM and HL had down-regulated innate immunity and chemokine signaling genes. While down-regulation of genes responsible for polarization of the secretory apparatus, activated NK cell signaling and MAP kinase signaling were exclusive to NK cells in patients with IM, in NK cells of HL, specifically, genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) – receptor interaction, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, TNF signaling, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and cytosolic DNA-sensing pathways were significantly down-regulated. Enrichment analysis showed STAT3 to be the most significant transcription factor (TF) for the down-regulated genes in IM, whereas, GATA1 was found to be the most significant TF for the genes down-regulated in HL. Analysis of protein interaction network identified functionally important protein clusters. Top clusters, comprised of down-regulated genes, involved in signaling and ubiquitin-related processes and pathways. These may perhaps be responsible for the hypo-responsiveness of NK cells in both diseases. These possibly point to different deficiencies in NK cell activation, loss of activating receptor signaling and degranulation in IM, versus loss of cytokine and chemokine signaling in HL, in the two EBV associated pathologies investigated. Various suppressed molecules and pathways were novel, which have not been reported earlier and could therefore be potential targets for immunotherapy of NK cell reactivation in both the diseases in future.

Date: January 21, 2020

The T-box4 (TBX4) gene (OMIM *601719) belongs to the T-box family of transcription regulators that share a conserved homology domain and are expressed at specific sites during various stages of embryonic development. Tbx4 has been found to be a crucial transcriptional regulator in embryonic hindlimb development in animal models. Monoallelic variants in the TBX4 gene are reported to be associated with skeletal defects of the pelvis and lower limbs. We report here a fetus with a novel multiple malformation syndrome associated with sacrococcygeal agenesis, bilateral lower limb aplasia, hypoplastic left heart, bilateral lung hypoplasia, hydroureteronephrosis, and nonimmune fetal hydrops, found to have a homozygous nonsense variant in the TBX4 gene. We propose that biallelic variants in the TBX4 gene are associated with a severe syndromic phenotype of sacrococcygeal agenesis and lower limb reduction defects.

Date: January 10, 2020

Alport syndrome (AS) is an inherited disorder of basement membranes caused by mutations affecting specific proteins of the type IV collagen family, presenting with nephropathy and extrarenal manifestations such as sensorineural deafness and ocular anomalies. Ten percentage to 15% of the patients with AS have autosomal recessive (ARAS) due to mutation in either COL4A3 or COL4A4 gene. We report a novel mutation in the COL4A3 gene in an Indian family with ARAS. The above‐mentioned genetic anomaly was a missense variation in exon 26 of the COL4A3 gene (chr2:228137797G>A; c.1891G>A) that resulted in the amino acid substitution of Arginine for Glycine at codon 631 (p.Gly631Arg) that was present in the heterozygous state in the asymptomatic parents and homozygous state in the male offspring who presented with early‐onset end‐stage renal disease, lenticonus and hearing loss. The patient (male offspring) underwent successful renal transplantation with his mother as a donor.

Date: December 11, 2019

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted therapies have shown limited efficacy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients despite its overexpression. Identifying molecular mechanisms associated with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs such as erlotinib remains an unmet need and a therapeutic challenge. In this study, we employed an integrated multi-omics approach to delineate mechanisms associated with acquired resistance to erlotinib by carrying out whole exome sequencing, quantitative proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling. We observed amplification of several genes including AXL kinase and transcription factor YAP1 resulting in protein overexpression. We also observed expression of constitutively active mutant MAP2K1 (p.K57E) in erlotinib resistant SCC-R cells. An integrated analysis of genomic, proteomic and phosphoproteomic data revealed alterations in MAPK pathway and its downstream targets in SCC-R cells. We demonstrate that erlotinib-resistant cells are sensitive to MAPK pathway inhibition. This study revealed multiple genetic, proteomic and phosphoproteomic alterations associated with erlotinib resistant SCC-R cells. Our data indicates that therapeutic targeting of MAPK pathway is an effective strategy for treating erlotinib-resistant HNSCC tumors.

Date: December 9, 2019

Abstract
Background
Studies evaluating next‐generation sequencing (NGS) for retinal disorders may not reflect clinical practice. We report results of retrospective analysis of patients referred for clinical testing at two institutions (US and India).

Methods
This retrospective study of 131 patients who underwent clinically validated targeted NGS or exome sequencing for a wide variety of clinical phenotypes categorized results into a definitive, indeterminate, or negative molecular diagnosis.

Results
A definitive molecular diagnosis (52%) was more common in the India cohort (62% vs. 39%, p = .009), while an indeterminate molecular diagnosis occurred only in the US cohort (12%). In the US cohort, a lower diagnostic rate in Hispanic, non‐Caucasians (23%) was seen compared to Caucasians (57%). The India cohort had a high rate of homozygous variants (61%) and different frequency of genes involved compared to the US cohort.

Conclusion
Despite inherent limitations in clinical testing, the diagnostic rate across the two cohorts (52%) was similar to the 50%–65% diagnostic rate in the literature. However, the diagnostic rate was lower in the US cohort and appears partly explained by racial background. The high rate of consanguinity in the Indian population is reflected in the high rate of homozygosity for pathogenic mutations and may have implications for population level screening and genetic counseling. Clinical laboratories may note diagnostic rates that differ from the literature, due to factors such as heterogeneity in racial background or consanguinity rates in the populations being tested. This information may be useful for post‐test counseling.

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